race

Imagining Board Game Studies

Recently, I have been getting really into board games. I’ve liked them in some capacity since I was a kid, but it seems like there is a golden age of board games right now. Developers are trying new things and making some really interested (and also ridiculously complicated games). The current flood of board games began around 15 years ago in Germany and Western Europe. This is where games like Settlers of Catan and Ticket to Ride came from. In the time since, board games caught on in the United States. I’ve often heard that the key distinctions between European and American board games (beyond geographies of production) is the differences in emphasis in game design and presentation. European games are supposed to be more abstract and less with a defined ‘genre.’ For example, building a city for points in Carcassone, or settling an island in Catan. On the other hand, American games are rife in themes or ‘genres.’ Space, horror, westerns, etc. are common forms of American board games. Several even tap into licensed franchises (Fantasy Flight Games has several games based on IPs).

For European games to create a ‘genre-less’ board game they largely turn to history as their means of presentation and justifications for game design elements. While this can turn out to typical Hellenistic, Roman, or focused on the European Renaissance, there is an uncomfortable emphasis on European colonization. Rio Grande Game’s Puerto Rico is easily one of the most uncomfortable in this genre. The back of the box reads:

In 1493, Christopher Columbus discovered the eastern-most island of the Great Antilles. About 50 years later–Puerto Rico really began to blossom – through you! Which role would you play? Prospector, captain, mayor, trader, settler, craftsman, or builder? Which roles will you play in the new world? Will you own the most prosperous plantations? Will you build the most valuable buildings? You have but one goal: achieve the greatest prosperity and highest respect! This is shown by the player who earns the most victory points. He will win the game!

What is uncomfortable about Puerto Rico is not only its theme of setting a game in the aftermath of the colonial violence of the Columbus expeditions, but importantly that you, as a player in the game, actively participate in this colonial nostalgia. Games like Puerto Rico are less an exception, but rather incredibly common in the board game market. Themes of race, colonialism, orientalism, and gendering are rife in the current board game market. As someone who both enjoys playing board games and as an academic I’ve wanted to try and make sense of these games.

As an academic trained in Cultural Studies, a field where popular culture is taken seriously I began to wonder how board games could be studies. Certainly there is the dynamic of how representations work in board games, as well as the prompts. But how do you account for the experience of playing the game itself? What kind of meanings are inscribed into the board games by their designers and distributors? What meanings are then produced by players when playing the game? As a scholar, what kinds of methods are available here? How does a study of board games differ from video games (or any other medium for that matter)?

I wanted to make this post, partially for myself, but to put my thoughts out there regarding the value and strategies for scholarship on board games?

P.S. If you know of any projects related to board games leave them in the comments!

Can we Decolonize St. Patrick’s Day?

My FaceBook news feed has two large trends going on right now. First, there is the usual excitement about St. Patrick’s Day (including jokes about Irish-ness, drunken-ness, and everything green). The second, is the stream of people who recognize that the way the holiday is celebrated in the U.S is a construction that deviates from Irish (in Ireland) celebrations of the holiday, the life of St. Patrick, and the experiences of Irish Americans. While the latter camp is certainly correct, I do not think it adaquetly understands the positioning of Irish Americans today. One particular post sparks my disgruntled-ness with the holiday and the positionings of both sides on St. Patrick’s Day. While I love the Zinn Education Project and some of the messages of this post, I am incredibly dubious about the emphasis on correcting the textbooks and curriculum in public schools regarding this matter. I see this as a matter of correcting some cracks in the foundations of understanding how to be White in the U.S.

The amazing Hari Kondablou made his obligatory St. Patrick’s Day post that hints at this matter:

Everyone’s Irish on St. Patrick’s Day? Does that mean I’m white today? I’M GOING TO TELL A COP TO GO TO HELL & THAT I’M A TAXPAYER!

Much to the enjoyment of those who love drinking on March 17th (and to the annoyance of St. Patrick Day purists), it is a holiday that allows for people to engage with some sort of perceived Irish identity. Kondabolu’s second mention that ‘being Irish makes one White’ points to the history of Irish Americans pursuit of becoming White. Through this ‘achievement’ of Whiteness, Irish Americans joined the American racial and colonizing project by working to distinguish themselves from People of Color (primarily Blacks on the East Coast) and to join the settler colonial project in the Western U.S. (bitterly ironic if one considers Irish history). My point here is that celebrating Irish-ness in the United States is one of simultaneously celebrating Whiteness. This does not necessarily happen in Ireland (though one should consider the discomfort the modern Irish State has with dealing with non-Irish, specifically non-European, immigrants). At the same time, a critique of those pursuing the image of an Irish St. Patrick Day in the U.S. is needed to confront their own choice to disjoint their vision of the holiday in terms of race. It is not that one version of the holiday is less problematic in terms of race, but both that are equally problematic in their conceptualizations in regards to race relations.

In opposing the historical and cultural insensitivity of contemporary St. Patrick’s Day in the U.S., we must seriously consider the issue of Whiteness that is surrounded by the holiday. It is more than likely that a project that works to contend with the racism done against and by Irish Americans seemingly estranges those from their homeland, rather I believe it addresses the particulars about the nature of diaspora. For those of us who are of Irish descent, we must the face the historical and discursive consequences of out ancestors and try to move forward with a challenge the dismantle the monster they joined.

Exploring WSU’s History with Race–Pullman’s Minstrel Shows

I was recently watching Ken Burns’ Jazz for some odd reason. The first half of the episode (that’s as far as I’ve got) provided a really interesting genealogy, albeit brief, of black musical history in the 19th century. I was particularly struck by the statement in regards to minstrel shows, the deliberate musical and comedy stage show that involved predominantly white actors putting on black make-up and playing as Blacks, that they happened everywhere in the United States. This began my own curiosity of exploring my new city and university’s history regarding race. I do so not to demonize Pullman or Washington State University (WSU), but to understand the historical complexities and importance that such places have in the kinds of academic work I do. Additionally, Pullman and WSU are not exception to these kind of racial histories, but rather have their own nuanced narratives that intersect with other local, regional, and national issues. So, did Pullman/WSU have minstrel shows? Yes.

In doing some cursory research, I found two different newspaper clippings regarding minstrel shows, their performance in Pullman, and WSU student involvement. In November 1909, the Spokane Daily Chronicle reported on a touring minstrel show coming to Pullman. The show involved the student orchestra, as well as students trying out for the school’s glee club. What is particularly notable is the monetary benefit that the WSU orchestra received from the performance of minstrel show.

The other clipping comes from November 1918. Like the clipping from 1909, WSU’s Student Army Training Corps (S.A.T.C) were centrally involved in the performance of the minstrel shows. S.A.T.C’s genealogical off-shoot, the WSU ROTC can be seen throughout campus, as well as ads on local radio stations. It is also evident from this clipping that Pullman’s minstrel performers also performed regionally.

State history. World War. Army. S. A. T. C. (Students Army Training Corps). 1918-11-25

Pullman/WSU’s history of minstrel performances, via these two newspaper clippings, is significant given the racial make-up of Pullman and, historically, WSU. Today, Pullman is predominantly White in its racial make-up, likewise, WSU in 1909 and 1918 would have also been primarily made up of White students. These were White students taking up the roles as overtly racist charactures of Blacks–and they were proud of it. Both articles give space to note the quality of the Blackface performers and their level of talent. ‘Playing Black’ was part of building skills for WSU’s music students in the early 20th century. These performances additionally served to financially benefit the school’s programs and extracurricular organizations.

This history of minstrelsy in Pullman is notable for its rural location, in contrast to other larger cities and their history of minstrel performances. It is also a crucial piece in understanding the racial baggage of my current university, as well as the participation of national cultural politics at the regional level.

If you have any further details regarding minstrel performances in Pullman, WSU, or the Palouse area, leave details in the comments.

Links to original archives and/or links:

S.A.T.C Minstrels Score: http://kaga.wsulibs.wsu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/clipping_II&CISOPTR=46692&CISOBOX=1&REC=5

Spokane Daily Chronicle: http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1338&dat=19091106&id=qL5XAAAAIBAJ&sjid=EfQDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6786,603458